King is a co-sponsor of the bill known as the Medicaid Coverage for Addiction Recovery Expansion Act, or Medicaid CARE Act. It's unclear if the law will ever be enacted, despite its bipartisan support, as Republican lawmakers and President Donald Trump are actively seeking ways to reduce Medicaid spending.
The American Health Care Act, which passed the House in early May, calls for more than $800 billion in cuts to the Medicaid program over a 10-year period.
"AHCA creates a lot of uncertainty for states and could seriously hamper progress in using Medicaid to improve access to opioid use disorder treatment," said Brendan Saloner, an addiction researcher and assistant professor at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
With cuts of that size, it's unlikely that states could continue to afford to have their beneficiaries treated in these facilities, according to MaryBeth Musumeci, an associate director at the Kaiser Family Foundation's program on Medicaid and the uninsured. An average inpatient weekly stay can range from $4,000 to $6,000 or even more.
"States are unlikely to come up with the money lost with the passage of that legislation," Musumeci said.
Still, a federal solution could eliminate inefficiencies and differences in state requests and create a single standard for behavioral and substance abuse treatment reimbursement, according to Dr. Jonathan Chen, an instructor at the Stanford University School of Medicine who has researched opioid abuse.
"Likely, inefficiencies will arise from redundant or conflicting efforts, and potentially inequity when different states come up with different approaches that are not equally effective," Chen said.
Last year, the CMS finalized a policy allowing Medicaid managed-care plans to pay the facilities for short-term stays lasting 15 or fewer days in a month. States such as Arizona and Wisconsin now have, or are planning to submit, waivers to remove the day limit and expand the new policy to their fee-for service populations.
The CMS has estimated that 13.8% of adults ages 21 to 64 on Medicaid experience serious substance abuse disorders. The Kaiser Family Foundation has found that 3 in 10 people who are addicted to opioids are in the Medicaid program.
National numbers also show that Medicaid members are prescribed opioids at twice the rate of non-Medicaid members and have three to six times the risk of prescription opioid overdose.
"The increased effort at the state and congressional level is essential to address opioid addiction among the Medicaid population," said Dr. Katherine Neuhausen, chief medical officer for Virginia's Medicaid agency.