The House passed legislation limiting noneconomic damages in medical malpractice lawsuits to $250,000. The vote on the Republican-backed bill was 229 to 197, largely on party lines.
The same bill passed the House last year but failed in the Senate on a Democrat-led filibuster. It must face the Senate again to become law.
Republicans have made malpractice reform a top priority though efforts to pass legislation have failed twice this year in the Senate, where Democrats vehemently oppose limiting damages.
The American Medical Association applauded Wednesday night's vote, calling the bill a "common sense" approach to medical liability reform.