Here are descriptions of the 11 organizations that supplied data for this report and their respective physician compensation surveys:
American Medical Association
The Chicago-based AMA collects net income data, rather than compensation data, from a sample of about 4,000 physicians annually. The sample is meant to represent all nonfederal, nonresident physicians who spend the greatest proportion of their time in patient care, including both office- and hospital-based physicians. The AMA's most recent data are from 1995 and were released in December 1996. The data are published in the AMA's annual Socioeconomic Characteristics of Medical Practice report, which costs $100 for members and $160 for nonmembers. Contact the AMA at 312-464-5000.
American Medical Group Association
The Alexandria, Va.-based association, which represents large group practices, conducts an annual compensation survey of physicians employed in its member group practices. The average size of the groups surveyed was 83 physicians. The AMGA's most recent data are from 1996 and are based on 265 group practices with a total of 22,000 physicians. The survey covers 68 positions or specialties. The cost is $225. Contact the AMGA at 703-838-0033.
Center for Healthcare Industry Performance Studies
The Columbus, Ohio-based healthcare data company surveyed 140 organizations with 1,245 physicians in November 1996. Of the organizations surveyed, 83% were hospitals, 7% were group practices, and 4% were physician practice management companies. The remaining 6% were in a variety of other categories. The survey includes data on six physician positions or specialties. The cost is $395. Contact Patrick Knott at 1-800-859-2447.
Ernst & Young
The international consulting and accounting firm conducts an annual compensation survey of physicians employed in hospitals, group practices, managed-care plans and integrated delivery systems. The firm's most recent data are from April 1996 and include 108 organizations with a total of 12,266 physicians. The survey includes 44 physician positions or specialties. It costs $400 for first-time purchasers and $125 for repeat buyers. Contact James Rodeghero at 213-977-3171.
The Walnut Creek, Calif.-based company surveyed 110 organizations with a total of 19,652 physicians in its most recent survey, conducted in May 1996. Of organizations contacted, 60% were hospitals, 16% were HMOs, and 24% were group practices. The survey covers 56 physician positions or specialties. It can be purchased for $1,000 to $1,500, depending on the size of the purchasing organization. Contact Melodie Nissen at 510-945-8220.
Hospital & Healthcare Compensation Service
The Oakland, N.J.-based consulting firm conducts an annual compensation survey of physicians employed by hospitals (68%), managed-care plans (3%) and group practices (26%). The other 3% were from a variety of categories. The firm's most recent data are based on a survey conducted in April of 324 organizations employing a total of 12,676 physicians. Some 49 physician positions or specialties are included. The survey results can be purchased for $250. Contact Tom Cioffe at 973-616-5722.
Medical Group Management Association
The Englewood, Colo.-based association conducts an annual compensation survey of its member practices, which average fewer than 10 physicians each. Current numbers reflect data submitted for 1996 or the most recently completed fiscal year. Of the 1,572 organizations surveyed, 92% were group practices, and 8% were hospitals. Some 29,672 physicians in 61 positions or specialties were included. The data are in the MGMA's Physician Compensation and Production Survey, which costs $200 for members and $300 for nonmembers. The MGMA also publishes the Academic Practice Faculty Compensation and Production Survey, which costs $200 for members, $250 for MGMA affiliates and $300 for others. St. Louis-based Cejka & Co. contributes to the surveys. For survey information, call Lisa Pieper in the MGMA survey operations department at 303-397-7895. For orders call 303-397-7888.
Merritt, Hawkins & Associates
The Irving, Texas-based physician recruitment firm surveyed 582 organizations representing 1,662 recruitment assignments for the 12 months ended in April 1997. Organizations surveyed included hospitals (51%), group practices (46%) and managed-care or insurance plans (3%). Fifty-two physician positions and specialties are included in the survey, which is free. For more information, contact Phillip Miller at 972-868-2200.
Sullivan, Cotter & Associates
The Detroit-based firm surveyed 201 organizations with more than 15,800 physicians in January. Figures represent total cash compensation. Of organizations surveyed, 49% were hospitals, 21% were group practices, 10% were integrated delivery systems, 5% were managed-care or insurance plans, 4% were physician-hospital organizations, and 4% were management service organizations. The other 7% were not specified. The annual survey includes 75 physician specialists, three physician levels-staff, chief and chair-and seven physician administrator positions. The cost of the survey is $375 for participants, $650 for nonparticipating healthcare organizations and $1,200 for nonhealthcare organizations. For a copy of the survey, contact 313-872-1760.
Norwalk, Conn.-based Weatherby, a physician recruitment firm, annually compiles surveys of starting salaries for major medical specialties. Current figures are based on 1996 survey data averaging 626 organizations and 1,442 physicians for each specialty surveyed. Surveyed organizations include group practices (39%), hospitals (31%) and managed-care or insurance plans (26%). The other 4% were not specified. The survey includes base salaries and bonuses. Compensation figures are available at no charge. For more information, contact Larry Stewart at 1-800-365-8900.
William M. Mercer
The New York-based benefits consulting firm conducts an annual survey, with the latest data from July 1996. The survey included 124 organizations, 65% of which were hospitals, 14% group practices and 10% managed-care or insurance plans. The other 11% were not specified. The survey covered 8,847 physicians with six physician positions and 68 specialties. The survey costs $750. Contact Laurie Gardner at 502-561-4647.